Tuesday, February 8, 2011

VERBS- AUXILLIARIES AND MODALS


VERBS- AUXILLIARIES AND MODALS
WHAT ARE VERBS?
Verbs are words which express action. Ex- eat, sleep, drink, come, go, scolded, laughed etc
Types of verb:
Verb – Transitive and Intransitive
Verb – Def. - A verb is a word which tells or asserts something about a person or a thing.
TRANSITIVE VERB- Def. - A transitive verb is a verb that denotes an action from the subject or the doer to an object.
E.g. - The boy kicks the football
Boy- Subject
Kicks- Verb
Football- Object
Most TRANSITIVE VERBS take a single object. But such TRANSITIVE VERBS like give, ask, offer, promise, tell, etc. - take two objects after them- an indirect object which denotes the person to whom something is given/done and a Direct object which is usually the name of some thing.
E.g. - His father (SUBJECT) gave (VERB) him (INDIRECT OBJECT) a watch. (DIRECT OBJECT).

Some verbs like COME, GO, FALL, DIE, SLEEP, LIE, denote action which cannot be done to anyone/thing. THEY CAN NEVER BE USED TRANSITIVELY.

REFLEXIVE VERBS

·       REFLEXIVE VERBS- are verbs where the subject and the object are the same person.
E.g. - The man (SUBJECT) killed himself (OBJECT).
Sometimes, though the verb is used reflexively, the object is simply understood by implication.
E.g. - The Japanese feed (themselves) chiefly on rice.
They are INTRANSITIVE VERBS.
·       Certain verbs can be used reflexively and also as transitive verbs.
E.g. - I (SUBJECT) enjoy myself (REFLEXIVE VERB) sitting alone.
Exercise: State whether the VERBS in the following sentences are TRANSITIVE or INTRANSITIVE. Name the object if the VERB is TRANSITIVE.
1.    The sun shines brightly.
Subject- Sun
Intransitive verb- SHINES
2.    The boy cut his hand with a knife.
Subject- Boy
Transitive verb- Cut
Object- his hand
3.    The clock stopped this morning.
Subject- Clock
Intransitive verb- Stopped
4.    The policeman blew his whistle.
Subject- Policeman
Transitive verb- Blew
Object- his whistle
5.    The sun rises in the east.
Subject- Sun
Intransitive verb- Rises
6.    An old beggar stood by the gate.
Subject- Beggar
Intransitive verb- Stood
7.    The clock ticks all day long.
Subject- Clock
Intransitive verb- Ticks
8.    I looked down from my window.
Subject- I
Intransitive verb- Looked
9.    Put away your books.
Reflexive subject- You/your
Intransitive verb- your books
10.The moon rose early.
Subject- Moon
Intransitive verb- Rose
11.The cat sleeps on the rug.
Subject- Cat
Intransitive verb- Sleeps
12.Cocks crow in the morning.
Subject- Cocks
Intransitive verb- Crow
13.Your book lies on the table.
Subject- Book
Intransitive verb- Lies
14.The fire burns dimly.
Subject- Fire
Intransitive verb- Burns
15.Time changes all things.
Subject- Time
Transitive verb- Changes
Object- all things
16.We eat three times a day.
Subject- We
Intransitive verb- Eat
17.Tell the truth.
Reflexive transitive verb- Tell
18.The birds sing in the green trees.
Subject- Birds
Intransitive verb- Sing
19.The little bird hopped about and sang.
Subject- Bird
Intransitive verb- Hopped/sang
20.My new watch does not keep good time.
Subject- My/watch
Transitive verb- does not keep
Object- good time
21.The beggar sat down by the road.
Subject- Beggar
Intransitive verb- Sat
22.I could not spare the time.
Subject- I
Transitive verb- could not spare
Object- time
23.He took shelter under a tree.
Subject- He
Transitive verb- took
Object- shelter
24.The boy easily lifted the heavy weight.
Subject- Boy
Transitive verb- lifted
Object- Weight
25.Balu wrote a letter to his uncle.
Subject- Balu
Transitive verb- Wrote
Object- letter
26.A tiny bird lived under the caves.
Subject- Bird
Intransitive verb- Lived
27.I know a funny little man
Subject- I
Transitive verb- Know
Object- Man
28.Birds fly in the air.
Subject- Birds
Intransitive verb- Fly
29.A light rain fell last night.
Subject- Rain
Intransitive verb- Fell
30.I shall bring my camera with me.
Subject- I
Reflexive Transitive verb- Bring
Object- me
31.You speak too loudly.
Subject- You
Intransitive verb- Speak
32.The dog ran after me.
Subject- Dog
Intransitive verb- ran



Helping and 
Modal Auxiliary
 
Verbs
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Helping verbs or auxiliary verbs such as will, shall, may, might, can, could, must, ought to, should, would, used to, need are used in conjunction with main verbs to express shades of time and mood. The combination of helping verbs with main verbs creates what are called verb phrases or verb strings. In the following sentence, "will have been" are helping or auxiliary verbs and "studying" is the main verb; the whole verb string is underlined:
·        As of next August, I will have been studying chemistry for ten years.
Students should remember that adverbs and contracted forms are not, technically, part of the verb. In the sentence, "He has already started." the adverb already modifies the verb, but it is not really part of the verb. The same is true of the 'nt in "He hasn't started yet" (the adverb not, represented by the contracted n't, is not part of the verb, has started).
Shall, will and forms of have, do and be combine with main verbs to indicate time and voice. As auxiliaries, the verbs be, have and do can change form to indicate changes in subject and time.
·        shall go now.
·        He had won the election.
·        They did write that novel together.
·        am going now.
·        He was winning the election.
·        They have been writing that novel for a long time.
Uses of Shall and Will and Should
In England, shall is used to express the simple future for first person I andwe, as in "Shall we meet by the river?" Will would be used in the simple future for all other persons. Using will in the first person would express determination on the part of the speaker, as in "We will finish this project by tonight, by golly!" Usingshall in second and third persons would indicate some kind of promise about the subject, as in "This shall be revealed to you in good time." This usage is certainly acceptable in the U.S., although shall is used far less frequently. The distinction between the two is often obscured by the contraction 'll, which is the same for both verbs.
In the United States, we seldom use shall for anything other than polite questions (suggesting an element of permission) in the first-person:
·        "Shall we go now?"
·        "Shall I call a doctor for you?"
(In the second sentence, many writers would use should instead, although shouldis somewhat more tentative than shall.) In the U.S., to express the future tense, the verb will is used in all other cases.
Shall is often used in formal situations (legal or legalistic documents, minutes to meetings, etc.) to express obligation, even with third-person and second-person constructions:
·        The board of directors shall be responsible for payment to stockholders.
·        The college president shall report financial shortfalls to the executive director each semester."
Should is usually replaced, nowadays, by would. It is still used, however, to mean "ought to" as in
·        You really shouldn't do that.
·        If you think that was amazing, you should have seen it last night.
In British English and very formal American English, one is apt to hear or readshould with the first-person pronouns in expressions of liking such as "I should prefer iced tea" and in tentative expressions of opinion such as
·        I should imagine they'll vote Conservative.
·        I should have thought so.
(The New Fowler's Modern English Usage edited by R.W. Burchfield. Clarendon Press: Oxford, England. 1996. Used with the permission of Oxford University Press. Examples our own.)

Uses of Do, Does and Did
In the simple present tense, do will function as an auxiliary to express the negative and to ask questions. (Does, however, is substituted for third-person, singular subjects in the present tense. The past tense did works with all persons, singular and plural.)
·        I don't study at night.
·        She doesn't work here anymore.
·        Do you attend this school?
·        Does he work here?
These verbs also work as "short answers," with the main verb omitted.
·        Does she work here? No, she doesn't work here.
With "yes-no" questions, the form of do goes in front of the subject and the main verb comes after the subject:
·        Did your grandmother know Truman?
·        Do wildflowers grow in your back yard?
Forms of do are useful in expressing similarity and differences in conjunction with so and neither.
·        My wife hates spinach and so does my son.
·        My wife doesn't like spinach; neither do I.
Do is also helpful because it means you don't have to repeat the verb:
·        Larry excelled in language studies; so did his brother.
·        Raoul studies as hard as his sister does.
The so-called emphatic do has many uses in English.
a.      To add emphasis to an entire sentence: "He does like spinach. He really does!"
b.     To add emphasis to an imperative: "Do come in." (actually softens the command)
c.      To add emphasis to a frequency adverb: "He never did understand his father." "She always does manage to hurt her mother's feelings."
d.     To contradict a negative statement: "You didn't do your homework, did you?" "Oh, but I did finish it."
e.      To ask a clarifying question about a previous negative statement: "Ridwell didn't take the tools." "Then who did take the tools?"
f.      To indicate a strong concession: "Although the Clintons denied any wrong-doing, they did return some of the gifts."
In the absence of other modal auxiliaries, a form of do is used in question and negative constructions known as the get passive:
·        Did Rinaldo get selected by the committee?
·        The audience didn't get riled up by the politician.
Based on descriptions in Grammar Dimensions: Form, Meaning, and Use 2nd Ed. by Jan Frodesen and Janet Eyring. Heinle & Heinle: Boston. 1997. Examples our own.

Uses of Have, Has and Had
Forms of the verb to have are used to create tenses known as the present perfect and past perfect. The perfect tenses indicate that something has happened in the past; the present perfect indicating that something happened and might be continuing to happen, the past perfect indicating that something happened prior to something else happening. (That sounds worse than it really is!) See the section on Verb Tenses in the Active Voice for further explanation; also review material in the Directory of English Tenses.
To have is also in combination with other modal verbs to express probability and possibility in the past.
·        As an affirmative statement, to have can express how certain you are that something happened (when combined with an appropriate modal + have + a past participle): "Georgia must have left already." "Clinton might have known about the gifts." "They may have voted already."
·        As a negative statement, a modal is combined with not + have + a past participle to express how certain you are that something did not happen: "Clinton might not have known about the gifts." "I may not have been there at the time of the crime."
·        To ask about possibility or probability in the past, a modal is combined with the subject + have + past participle: "Could Clinton have known about the gifts?"
·        For short answers, a modal is combined with have: "Did Clinton know about this?" "I don't know. He may have." "The evidence is pretty positive. He must have."
To have (sometimes combined with to get) is used to express a logical inference:
·        It's been raining all week; the basement has to be flooded by now.
·        He hit his head on the doorway. He has got to be over seven feet tall!
Have is often combined with an infinitive to form an auxiliary whose meaning is similar to "must."
·        I have to have a car like that!
·        She has to pay her own tuition at college.
·        He has to have been the first student to try that.
Based on the analysis in Grammar Dimensions: Form, Meaning, and Use 2nd Ed. by Jan Frodesen and Janet Eyring. Heinle & Heinle: Boston. 1997. Examples our own.
Modal Auxiliaries
Other helping verbs, called modal auxiliaries or modals, such as can, could, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, and would, do not change form for different subjects. For instance, try substituting any of these modal auxiliaries for can with any of the subjects listed below.
I
you (singular)
he
we
you (plural)
they
can write well.
Uses of Can and Could
The modal auxiliary can is used
·        to express ability (in the sense of being able to do something or knowing how to do something):
He can speak Spanish but he can't write it very well.
·        to expression permission (in the sense of being allowed or permitted to do something):
Can I talk to my friends in the library waiting room? (Note that can is less formal than may. Also, some writers will object to the use of canin this context.)
·        to express theoretical possibility:
American automobile makers can make better cars if they think there's a profit in it.
The modal auxiliary could is used
·        to express an ability in the past:
I could always beat you at tennis when we were kids.
·        to express past or future permission:
Could I bury my cat in your back yard?
·        to express present possibility:
We could always spend the afternoon just sitting around talking.
·        to express possibility or ability in contingent circumstances:
If he studied harder, he could pass this course.
In expressing ability, can and could frequently also imply willingness: Can you help me with my homework?

Can versus May
Whether the auxiliary verb can can be used to express permission or not — "Can I leave the room now?" ["I don't know if you can, but you may."] — depends on the level of formality of your text or situation. As Theodore Bernstein puts it in The Careful Writer, "a writer who is attentive to the proprieties will preserve the traditional distinction: can for ability or power to do something, mayfor permission to do it.
The question is at what level can you safely ignore the "proprieties." Merriam-Webster's Dictionary, tenth edition, says the battle is over and can can be used in virtually any situation to express or ask for permission. Most authorities, however, recommend a stricter adherence to the distinction, at least in formal situations.
Authority: The Careful Writer by Theodore Bernstein. The Free Press: New York. 1998. p. 87.

Uses of May and Might
Two of the more troublesome modal auxiliaries are may and might. When used in the context of granting or seeking permission, might is the past tense ofmayMight is considerably more tentative than may.
·        May I leave class early?
·        If I've finished all my work and I'm really quiet, might I leave early?
In the context of expressing possibility, may and might are interchangeable present and future forms and might + have + past participle is the past form:
·        She might be my advisor next semester.
·        She may be my advisor next semester.
·        She might have advised me not to take biology.
Avoid confusing the sense of possibility in may with the implication of might,that a hypothetical situation has not in fact occurred. For instance, let's say there's been a helicopter crash at the airport. In his initial report, before all the facts are gathered, a newscaster could say that the pilot "may have been injured." After we discover that the pilot is in fact all right, the newscaster can now say that the pilot "might have been injured" because it is a hypothetical situation that has not occurred. Another example: a body had been identified after much work by a detective. It was reported that "without this painstaking work, the body may have remained unidentified." Since the body was, in fact, identified, might is clearly called for.

Uses of Will and Would
In certain contexts, will and would are virtually interchangeable, but there are differences. Notice that the contracted form 'll is very frequently used for will.
Will can be used to express willingness:
·        I'll wash the dishes if you dry.
·        We're going to the movies. Will you join us?
It can also express intention (especially in the first person):
·        I'll do my exercises later on.
and prediction:
·        specific: The meeting will be over soon.
·        timeless: Humidity will ruin my hairdo.
·        habitual: The river will overflow its banks every spring.
Would can also be used to express willingness:
·        Would you please take off your hat?
It can also express insistence (rather rare, and with a strong stress on the word "would"):
·        Now you've ruined everything. You would act that way.
and characteristic activity:
·        customary: After work, he would walk to his home in West Hartford.
·        typical (casual): She would cause the whole family to be late, every time.
In a main clause, would can express a hypothetical meaning:
·        My cocker spaniel would weigh a ton if I let her eat what she wants.
Finally, would can express a sense of probability:
·        I hear a whistle. That would be the five o'clock train.

Uses of Used to
The auxiliary verb construction used to is used to express an action that took place in the past, perhaps customarily, but now that action no longer customarily takes place:
·        We used to take long vacation trips with the whole family.
The spelling of this verb is a problem for some people because the "-ed" ending quite naturally disappears in speaking: "We yoostoo take long trips." But it ought not to disappear in writing. There are exceptions, though. When the auxiliary is combined with another auxiliary, did, the past tense is carried by the new auxiliary and the "-ed" ending is dropped. This will often happen in the interrogative:
·        Didn't you use to go jogging every morning before breakfast?
·        It didn't use to be that way.
Used to can also be used to convey the sense of being accustomed to or familiar with something:
·        The tire factory down the road really stinks, but we're used to it by now.
·        I like these old sneakers; I'm used to them.
Used to is best reserved for colloquial usage; it has no place in formal or academic text.


From the choices provided after each sentence select the verb that would correctly complete the sentence.
1.  You seem to be having trouble there. _________ I help you?
 Would
 Will
 Shall
2.  I don't have enough money to buy lunch. __________ you lend me a couple of dollars?
 May
 Could
 Shall
3.  That ice is dangerously thin now. You ________ go ice-skating today.
 mustn't
 might not
 would mind not to
4.  It's way past my bedtime and I'm really tired. I ________ go to bed.
 should
 ought
 could
5.  He ______________ have committed this crime. He wasn't even in the city that night.
 might
 shouldn't
 couldn't
6.  John is over two hours late already, He ___________ missed the bus again.
 should have
 must have
 will have
7.  I'm really quite lost. _______________ showing me how to get out of here?
 Would you mind
 Would you be
 Must you be
8.  That bus is usually on time. It _________ to be here any time now.
 might
 has
 ought
9.  I read about your plane's near disaster. You ____________ terrified!
 might have been
 must have been
 shall have been
10.  It's the law. They ____________ have a blood test before they get married.
 might
 could
 have to
11.  Professor Villa, we've finished our work for today. _________ we leave now, please?
 May
 Can
 Must


May and Might 
A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal auxiliary verbs: 
May: “May” is used to express permission or possibility. The negative of may is 
“may not”.
Example: I may become a doctor. 
In this example “may” is used to express the possibility of me becoming a doctor in the future. 
Example: May I have a glass of water? 
In this example “may” is used to ask permission to have a glass of water. 
Directions: Make your own sentences using “may”.     
1) _____________________________________________________________________ 
2) _____________________________________________________________________ 
Might: “Might” is used to express possibility. It differs from “may” in that the 
possibility it expresses is usually smaller. The negative of might is “might not”.
Example: I might become a doctor when I grow up, but I doubt it. 
In this example “might” is used to express the small possibility that I will become a 
doctor when I grow up. Directions: Now make your own sentences using “might”.     
1) _____________________________________________________________________ 
2) _____________________________________________________________________ 
Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence. 
1) When I grow up, I (may, might) become an engineer. 
2) There is a small chance the we (may, might) go to the beach this weekend. 
3) There is a good change that we (might, may) have to postpone the meeting. 
4) Billy and I (may, might) cook dinner tonight. 
5)   The airplane (might, may) crash. 
6) You never know, I (may, might) become president one day. 
7) (May, Might) I have a piece of bread please? 
8) It (might, may) snow tonight, but I doubt it. 
9) If Jane studied harder, she (might, may) have gotten a better grade on the test. 
10) I (might, may) not be coming to your party tonight. I told my mother that I would stay home and make cookies with her already. I’m sorry. 



May and Might
A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal
auxiliary verbs:
May: “May” is used to express permission or possibility. The negative of may is
“may not”.
Example: I may become a doctor.
In this example “may” is used to express the possibility of me becoming a doctor in the
future.
Example: May I have a glass of water?
In this example “may” is used to ask permission to have a glass of water.
Directions: Make your own sentences using “may”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________
Might: “Might” is used to express possibility. It differs from “may” in that the
possibility it expresses is usually smaller. The negative of might is “might not”.
Example: I might become a doctor when I grow up, but I doubt it.
In this example “might” is used to express the small possibility that I will become a
doctor when I grow up. Directions: Now make your own sentences using “might”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________
Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence.
1) When I grow up, I (may, might) become an engineer.
2) There is a small chance the we (may, might) go to the beach this weekend.
3) There is a good change that we (might, may) have to postpone the meeting.
4) Billy and I (may, might) cook dinner tonight.
5)   The airplane (might, may) crash.
6) You never know, I (may, might) become president one day.
7) (May, Might) I have a piece of bread please?
8) It (might, may) snow tonight, but I doubt it.
9) If Jane studied harder, she (might, may) have gotten a better grade on the test.
10) I (might, may) not be coming to your party tonight. I told my mother that I would
stay home and make cookies with her already. I’m sorry.


Must and Have to
A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal
auxiliary verbs:
Must: “Must” has two functions. First it expresses a strong belief. This belief is not
based on fact, but rather on logic. Second, it expresses an obligation. The source of this
obligation is internal (coming from oneself). The negative of must is “must not” or the
contraction “mustn’t”.
Example: My keys must be around here somewhere.
In this example “must” expresses a strong belief that is based on logic.
Example: I must climb Mount Everest.
In this example “must” expresses the obligation to climb Mount Everest that comes from
an internal source (no one external to me is forcing me to do it).
Directions: Make your own sentences using “must”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________
Have to: “Have to” has several functions. First it expresses a strong belief. This
belief is not based on fact, but rather on logic. Second, it expresses an obligation. The
source of this obligation is external (coming from your boss, the law, an authority). The
negative of have is “do not have to”.
Example: Yoko has to win this race to advance to the next round.
In this example “has to” expresses a strong belief that is based on logic.
Example: My mother says that I have to make my bed. In this example “have to” expresses an obligation coming from an external source (my
mother).
Directions: Now make your own sentences using “would”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________
Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence.
1) My boss told me that I (have to, must) work overtime this week.
2) I (must, have to) get my hair cut before the dance.
3) She (has to, must) pay monthly rent to live in her apartment.
4) Ted’s dad said that he (must, has to) clean his room before he can play.
5)   I (have to, must) buy those pretty red shoes.
6) The runner (has to, must) win the race to get a gold medal.
7) The police officer said that I (must, have to) go to jail.
8) I (must, have to) win this game of cards.
9) I (have to, must) become a tennis champion.
10) People (must, have to) eat to live.


Ought to and Had better
A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal
auxiliary verbs:
Ought to: “Ought to” is used to express the ideal (best) action. It is different from
“should” in that it gives a sentence a more obligatory tone. The negative of ought is
“ought not” or the contraction “oughtn’t”.
Example: I ought to become a doctor because my father was a doctor.
In this example “ought to” is used to express the ideal and somewhat obligatory action to
become a doctor.
Directions: Make your own sentences using “ought to”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________
Had better: “Had better” is used in the same way as “ought” (they are rough
synonyms). The negative of had better is “had better not”.
Example: He had better wash his hands before he eats.
In this example “had better” is used to express the ideal and somewhat obligatory action
to wash his hands before he eats.
Directions: Now make your own sentences using “had better”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________ Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence.
1) I (had better / ought to, will) wash the dishes before mom gets home.
2) If she wants to, Hopi (had better / ought to, could) become a famous actor.
3) I can’t decide if I (had better / ought to, should) go to the movie tonight. I guess I
will, because I don’t have anything else to do.
4) Jerry (had better / ought to, might) mow the lawn before the family picnic.
5)   The firemen (would, ought to / had better) extinguish the fire quickly.
6) Drivers (had better / ought to, have to) stop at red lights.
7) Trees (had better / ought to, can) make light into food.
8) They (had better / ought to, may) eat a cookie.
9) The students (had better / ought to, could) finish their homework before class.
10) The war (had better / ought to, used to) end soon.


Shall and Should
A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal
auxiliary verbs:
Shall: “Shall” is to express a future action. It is different than “will” in that it is used
to express an order or prophecy. The negative of shall is “shall not” or the contraction
“shan’t”.
Example: I shall become a doctor.
In this example “shall” is used to express the prophecy of me becoming a doctor in the
future.
Example: Tomorrow, you shall climb to the top of Mt. Everest.
In this example “shall” is used to order or command a future action.
Directions: Make your own sentences using “shall”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________
Should: “Should” is used to express the ideal (best) action which happens in the
past, present, or future. The negative of should is “should not” or the contraction
“shouldn’t”.
Example: I think I should make chicken for dinner tonight.
In this example “should” is used to express that making chicken is the best future action.
Example: I should get paid more for the hard work that I do.
In this example “should” is used to express that it would be ideal for me to get paid more
for my present action. Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence.
1) Mom thinks you (should, shall) clean your room.
2) Trains (shall, should) go faster.
3) This weekend (should, shall) be the best weekend ever!
4) I (should, shall) be a writer when I get older.
5)   Police (shan’t, shouldn’t) be allowed to drive so fast.
6) Our team (should, shall) have tried harder.
7) After you are finished washing my car, you (shall, should) get me something to
eat.
8) (Shall, Should) we be ready by ten?
9) If we want to make money, we (should, shall) get a job.
10) The world (should, shall) be peaceful.
Directions: Now make your own sentences using “should”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________


Will and Would
A modal auxiliary verb is used to modify the mood of a verb. Here is a list of the modal
auxiliary verbs:
Will: “Will” is used when you are volunteering to do something in the future, or when
you are deciding at the time of speaking to do something in the future. The negative of
will is “will not” or the contraction “won’t” (See “Using will and going” in the future
tense folder of the advanced section of this website for more information on “will”).
Example: I will cook dinner.
In this example “will” is used to volunteer to cook dinner in the future.
Example: I think I will go to the beach this Sunday.
In this example “will” is used to express a future action that is being decided upon at the
time of speaking.
Directions: Make your own sentences using “will”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________
Would: “Would” has several functions. First, it functions as the past tense of “will”.
Second, it functions as the conditional mood of “will”. Third, it is used to be polite. The
negative of would is “would not” or the contraction “wouldn’t”.
Example: I would try to act like my father when I was young.
In this example “would” functions as the past tense of “will”.
Example: I would get a tan if I worked at the pool.
In this example “would” functions as the conditional mood of “will”. Example: I would like more tea please.
In this example “would” is used to be polite.
Directions: Circle the correct auxiliary modal verb in each sentence.
1) My dog and I (would, will) go for walks when she was younger.
2) I (will, would) buy new shoes if I had enough money.
3) I am feeling tired. I think I (would, will) go to sleep now.
4) I (will, would) like more milk when you get a chance.
5)   I don’t think we (will, would) ever win the game.
6) If you get in trouble, I (won’t, wouldn’t) help you.
7) When we were in sixth grade, we (will, would) usually play kick ball at recess.
8) (Will, Would) you like steak or chicken?
9) If I was a famous tennis player, I (won’t, wouldn’t) like to lose.
10) I am hungry. I (will, would) get something to eat.
Directions: Now make your own sentences using “would”.    
1) _____________________________________________________________________
2) _____________________________________________________________________




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