Wednesday, February 9, 2011

TENSES- A COMPLETE STUDY


TENSES- A COMPLETE STUDY-
In English, there are three basic tenses: present, past, and future. Each has a perfect form, indicating completed action; each has a continuous form, indicating ongoing action; and each has a perfect continuous form, indicating ongoing action that will be completed at some definite time. Here is a list of examples of these tenses and their definitions:



Simple Forms
Present Tense
Present tense expresses an unchanging, repeated, or reoccurring action or situation that exists only now. It can also represent a widespread truth.
Example
Meaning
The mountains are tall and white.
Unchanging action
Every year, the school council elects new members.
Recurring action
Pb is the chemical symbol for lead.
Widespread truth
Past Tense
Past tense expresses an action or situation that was started and finished in the past. Most past tense verbs end in -ed. The irregular verbs have special past tense forms which must be memorized.

Example
Form
World War II ended in 1945.
Regular -ed past
Ernest Hemmingway wrote "The Old Man and the Sea."
Irregular form

Future Tense
Future tense expresses an action or situation that will occur in the future. This tense is formed by using will/shall with the simple form of the verb.
The speaker of the House will finish her term in May of 1998.
The future tense can also be expressed by using am, is, or are with going to.
The surgeon is going to perform the first bypass in Minnesota.
We can also use the present tense form with an adverb or adverbial phrase to show future time.
The president speaks tomorrow. (Tomorrow is a future time adverb.)


Continuous Forms
Present Continuous Tense
Present continuous tense describes an ongoing action that is happening at the same time the statement is written. This tense is formed by using am/is/are with the verb form ending in -ing.
The sociologist is examining the effects that racial discrimination has on society.
Past Continuous Tense
Past continuous tense describes a past action which was happening when another action occurred. This tense is formed by using was/were with the verb form ending in -ing.
The explorer was explaining the lastest discovery in Egypt when protests began on the streets.
Future Continuous Tense
Future continuous tense describes an ongoing or continuous action that will take place in the future. This tense is formed by using will be or shall be with the verb form ending in -ing.
Dr. Jones will be presenting ongoing research on sexist language next week.


Perfect Forms
Present Perfect Tense
Present perfect tense describes an action that happened at an indefinite time in the past or that began in the past and continues in the present.This tense is formed by using has/have with the past participle of the verb. Most past participles end in -ed. Irregular verbs have special past participles that must be memorized.
Example
Meaning
The researchers have traveled to many countries in order to collect more significant data.
At an indefinite time
Women have voted in presidential elections since 1921.
Continues in the present
Past Perfect Tense
Past perfect tense describes an action that took place in the past before another past action. This tense is formed by using had with the past participle of the verb.
By the time the troops arrived, the war had ended.
Future Perfect Tense
Future perfect tense describes an action that will occur in the future before some other action. This tense is formed by using will have with the past participle of the verb.
By the time the troops arrive, the combat group will have spent several weeks waiting.


Perfect Continuous Forms
Present Perfect Continuous
Present perfect continuous tense describes an action that began in the past, continues in the present, and may continue into the future. This tense is formed by usinghas/have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing).
The CEO has been considering a transfer to the state of Texas where profits would be larger.


Past Perfect Continuous
Past perfect continuous tense describes a past, ongoing action that was completed before some other past action. This tense is formed by using had been and thepresent perfect of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing).
Before the budget cuts, the students had been participating in many extracurricular activities.
Future Perfect Continuous
Future perfect continuous tense describes a future, ongoing action that will occur before some specified future time. This tense is formed by using will have been and the present participle of the verb (the verb form ending in -ing).

VERBS/ VERB TENSES | TO HAVE (Present tense)
Write the correct present-tense form of the verb TO HAVE:
Ex: I have a cat.
1. My parents _________________ a nice garden.
2. My brother _________________ three children.
3. We don’t _________________ time to go to the beach.
4. My cousin _________________ a good job.
5. Do you _________________ my money?
6. That woman _________________ very beautiful eyes.
7. My neighbors _________________ a dog.
8. My boss _________________ a new car.
9. I don’t _________________ a laptop.
10. My brother and his wife _________________ a beautiful house.

VERBS/ VERB TENSES | TO BE (Present tense)
Write the correct present-tense form of the verb TO BE:
Ex: I am from Japan.
1. My parents _________________ from England.
2. My brother _________________ a very good dancer.
3. We _________________ very happy here.
4. My cousins _________________ doctors.
5. _________________ you his friend?
6. I _________________ a teacher.
7. Jim _________________ a musician.
8. They _________________ not from Korea.
9. My father _________________ very tall.
10. My cousin and his wife _________________ in Paris.

VERBS/ VERB TENSES | TO BE (Present tense) PART 2
Complete the following answers, using the correct pronoun and the correct present-tense form of the verb TO BE:
Ex: Q: Are you happy? A: Yes, I’m/I am happy.
Q: Is your father tall? A: No, he isn’t.
1. Q: Is he German? A: No, _________________ from Austria.
2. Q: Are you from Argentina? A: No, _________________ from Chile.
3. Q: Are your parents Chinese? A: Yes, _________________.
4. Q: Are you angry? A: No, _________________.
5. Q: Are they your friends? A: Yes, _________________.
6. Q: Is your brother a teacher? A: Yes, _________________.
7. Q: Is your father old? A: No, _________________.
8. Q: Are your cousins pretty? A: Yes, _________________.
9. Q: Are you taller than your sister? A: No, _________________.
10. Q: Am I a good student? A: Yes, _________________.


VERBS/ VERB TENSES | TO BE or TO HAVE? (Present tense) 
Choose whether each sentence requires the verb TO BE of TO HAVE. Choose the correct present-tense form of each verb:
Ex: I have $10 dollars; He is very handsome.
1. My brother _________________ a cold.
2. We _________________ from Canada.
3. I _________________ really hungry.
4. The girls _________________ thirsty.
5. He _________________ two sisters.
6. I _________________ a good job.
7. Thomas _________________ at work.
8. This _________________ a good idea.
9. We _________________ in a hurry.
10. I _________________ hot. I’m going to take off my jacket.

VERBS | Mixed verbs 1
Choose the correct verb tense. Several options might be acceptable - choose the best response:
1. I _____________ with my mother yesterday. ( to speak )
a) didn’t speak b) have not spoken c) haven’t been speaking
2. I _____________ to this restaurant for 5 years (and I still do). ( to come)
a) was coming b) have been coming c) am coming
3. She _____________ him if he hadn’t asked her. ( to tell)
a) would not tell b) would not have told c) didn’t tell
4. How often are you at the beach? I _____________ there every day. ( to go )
a) will have gone b) am going c) go
5. The concert we _____________ to last Monday was amazing! ( to go )
a) will have gone b) went c) go
6. Please _____________ me the truth! ( to tell )
a) was telling b) to tell c) tell
7. I _____________ a bath when the phone rang. ( to take )
a) was taking b) to take c) took
8. She insisted on _____________ there alone. ( to go )
a) going b) to go c) to be going
9. I demanded __________ to his supervisor. ( to speak )
a) to be speaking b) to speak c) speak
10. I never _____________ of him as a good friend. ( to think )
a) was thinking b) thought c) have been thinking

VERBS | Mixed verbs 2
Choose the correct verb tense. Several options might be acceptable - choose the best response:
1. I _____________ him sing yet. ( to hear )
a) didn’t hear b) haven’t heard c) haven’t been hearing
2. My father _____________ this happy in a long time. ( to be)
a) wasn’t b) hasn’t been c) wasn’t being
3. What is she doing? She _____________. ( to talk)
a) is talking b) has talked c) talks
4. I was at the same store, but I _____________ you. ( to see )
a) will not have seen b) haven’t seen c) didn’t see
5. _____________ me tomorrow! ( to call )
a) Will call b) To call c) Call
6. I can’t talk right now - Let’s _____________ tomorrow. ( to talk )
a) be talking b) talk c) to talk
7. Did you _____________ at his joke? ( to laugh )
a) laugh b) to laugh c) laughed
8. My brother _____________ to Japan three times. ( to be )
a) has been b) was being c) was
9. Are the sentences “I like swimming” and “I like to swim” both correct?
a) no b) yes
10. By the time I’m 30, I _____________ all the books on this list. ( to read )
a) will be reading b) will be read c) will have read

VERBS | Mixed verbs 3
Choose the correct verb tense. Several options might be acceptable - choose the best response:
1. Is he a good driver? No - he _____________ like a maniac! ( to drive )
a) drives b) is driving c) will drive
2. _____________ this whole time? ( to sleep )
a) You are sleeping b) Have you been sleeping c) Are you sleeping
3. He was being _____________ by the security guard. ( to watch)
a) watching b) watch c) watched
4. _____________ at night is very difficult. ( to drive )
a) Driving b) To be driving c) To drive
5. Jorge _____________ in Madrid before he got that job in Paris. ( to call )
a) is living b) was living c) would have lived
6. I worked as a banker before I _____________ to Australia. ( to come )
a) will have come b) came c) come
7. I _____________ it was you! ( to know )
a) will be knowing b) should have been knowing c) should have known
8. He told me that he _____________ all of these movies. ( to see )
a) had been seeing b) had seen c) had been seen
9. Did he come on time? No, he _____________ one hour late!
a) came b) has come c) comes
10. We spent the whole evening _____________. ( to talk )
a) talking b) talk c) to talk


VERBS | Mixed verbs 4
Choose the correct verb tense. Several options might be acceptable - choose the best response:
1. I _____________ for long when the phone rang. ( to sleep )
a) hadn’t been sleeping b) haven’t slept c) will not have slept
2. He can’t come to the phone because he _____________. ( to sleep )
a) sleeps b) is sleeping c) has slept
3. Where _____________ that jacket? ( to get)
a) has she gotten b) did she get c) has she been getting
4. I had already eaten dinner before they _____________. ( to come )
a) came b) are coming c) have come
5. The prisoner was _____________ to another location. ( to take )
a) taking b) took c) taken
6. How long have you been _____________ on this project? ( to work )
a) worked b) worked c) working
7. I had been doing my homework for three hours when my friend _____________. ( to arrive )
a) arrives b) has arrived c) arrived
8. We _____________ for you for three hours last night. ( to wait )
a) waited b) will have waited c) have waited
9. By this time tomorrow, I _____________ who won the game. ( to know )
a) will know b) will be knowing c) am knowing
10. I _____________ he wouldn’t listen to you. ( to know )
a) know b) knew c) was knowing


VERBS | Mixed verbs 5
Choose the correct verb tense. Several options might be acceptable - choose the best response:
1. When I first saw him, he _____________ to my brother. ( to talk )
a) has talked b) was talking c) talked
2. Jeannette stopped _____________ three years ago. ( to smoke )
a) smoking b) to smoke c) smoked
3. He was _____________ to make me laugh. ( to try)
a) try b) trying c) tried
4. Don’t do it until I _____________ you to do it. ( to tell )
a) told b) am telling c) tell
5. When I first came to this country, I _____________ anyone. ( to know )
a) haven’t known b) didn’t know c) wasn’t knowing
6. What do you mean? = What _____________? ( to say )
a) you say b) did you say c) are you saying
7. I haven’t known him long enough _____________ whether or not I like him. ( to tell )
a) to tell b) to be telling c) to have told
8. I _____________ for eight hours last night. ( to sleep )
a) slept b) will have slept c) have slept
9. You _____________ him, have you? ( to see )
a) didn’t see b) will not have seen c) haven’t seen
10. Do you know how_____________? ( to sing )
a) sing b) to sing c) to be singing

VERBS | Mixed past tense exercise 1
Fill in each blank with the best response. The third choice C means that either A or B can be used depending on the situation:
1. He __________________ to her last night.
a) has talked b) talked c) either a or b
2. I __________________ when you came in.
a) was sleeping b) slept c) either a or b
3. I __________________ that movie.
a) have seen b) saw c) either a or b
4. I __________________ feeling well.
a) haven’t been b) hadn’t been c) either a or b
5. I __________________ living in Taipei for five years. (and I still live here)
a) have been living b) was living c) either a or b
6. My brother __________________ in Dallas for five years.
a) lived b) was living c) either a or b
7. She _________________ in Dallas when I met her.
a) has been living b) was living c) either a or b
8. He __________________ her all day = He has called her many times during the day
a) has been calling b) was called c) either a or b
9. The witness was _________________ to testify by the judge.
a) calling b) called c) either a or b
10. I don’t understand why he _________________ so strange recently.


VERBS | Mixed past tense exercise 2
Fill in each blank with the best response. The third choice C means that either A or B can be used depending on the situation:
1. Thomas and David ________________ best friends until Thomas discovered that David was being dishonest with him.
a) were b) have been c) either a or b
2. Did she come to the party? Yes… and I ________________ really happy to see her.
a) was b) would have been c) either a or b
3. Did she come to the party? No… but I ________________ really happy to see her.
a) was b) would have been c) either a or b
4. I ________________ you then and I don’t believe you now.
a) didn’t believe b) haven’t believed c) either a or b
5. We ________________ a new engineer yesterday.
a) have hired b) hired c) either a or b
6. My cousin ________________ me that you were so beautiful.
a) never told me b) was never telling me c) either a or b
7. That isn’t what I ________________ in mind.
a) was having b) had c) either a or b
8. Why ________________ any of my phone calls?
a) haven’t you returned b) didn’t you return c) either a or b
9. ________________ so busy with the preparations (that) we forgot to call you.
a) We’ve been b) We were c) either a or b
10. ________________ this happy in seven years!
a) I haven’t been b) I wasn’t c) either a or b

VERB TENSES | Conditional Tenses 1
Choose the best (most grammatically correct) response:
1. If he hadn’t been standing there, he __________________ the accident.
a) would not have seen b) would not see c) will not see
2. If I had more time, __________________ French.
a) I will learn b) I would learn c) I would have learned
3. If I had known you were hungry, we __________________ at that diner.
a) would stop b) would have stopped c) would stop
4. If I see him, I __________________ him you’re looking for him.
a) would tell b) will tell c) would have told
5. If she had asked me in Spanish, I ____________________ to understand her.
a) would not be able b) will not be able c) would not have been able
6. Even if I __________________ the answer, I wouldn’t tell you.
a) knew b) had known c) know
7. If my roommates _________________, I will be all alone.
a) leave b) left c) had left
8. If I __________________ the money, I could lend it to you.
a) have b) had c) had had
9. If you __________________ me at work, you would not have been able to reach me.
a) hadn’t called b) didn’t call c) don’t call
10. If you ____________________ her the truth, she will be very upset.
a) didn’t tell b) wouldn’t tell c) don’t tell

VERB TENSES | Conditional Tenses 2
Choose the best (most grammatically correct) response:
1. I didn’t think he’d come if he __________________ who else was coming.
a) would know b) knows c) knew
2. What __________________ if you won the lottery?
a) would you do b) would you have done c) will you do
3. If you keep saying these things, people __________________ you’re crazy.
a) will think b) would think c) would have thought
4. If we __________________ now, we will be able to make the 6:00 PM show.
a) left b) leave c) would have left
5. When the police __________________, tell them what happened.
a) would come b) come c) would have come
6. I __________________ our anniversary if she hadn’t reminded me.
a) would forget b) would have forgotten c) will forget
7. If he’s late, __________________ eating without him.
a) we can start b) we would start c) we would have started
8. I wouldn’t accept that job even if they __________________ me $50,000 a year.
a) offer b) had offered c) offered
9. If it wasn’t raining, we __________________ for a walk.
a) could go out b) could have gone out c) can go out
10. If John ____________________ more money, he would stay here longer.
a) would have b) had c) would have had


VERB TENSES | Conditional Tenses 3
Choose the best (most grammatically correct) response:
1. If she __________________ so much last night, she would not have had such an awful headache this morning.
a) had not drank b) did not drink c) does not drink
2. If I __________________ my homework, my parents will be angry.
a) don’t do b) didn’t do c) wouldn’t do
3. If you loved your dog, you __________________ better care of it.
a) will take b) would have taken c) would take
4. I will talk to you if I __________________ time.
a) would have b) have c) would have had
5. How would she have known if I __________________ her?
a) hadn’t told b) didn’t tell c) don’t tell
6. If I __________________ in Hawaii, I would be swimming right now.
a) would be b) was c) were
7. If I tell you the truth you __________________ at me.
a) would laugh b) will laugh c) would have laughed
8. If I had taken German in high school, I __________________ for that job in Berlin last year.
a) would apply b) would have applied c) applied
9. If she wasn’t so pretty, boys __________________ with her all the time.
a) will not fall in love b) would not fall in love c) do not fall in love
10. If I hadn’t come, I ____________________ it.
a) will regret b) would regret c) would have regretted

VERB TENSES| The present continuous tense 1
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of each verb in brackets:
1. I ________________________ to the beach next weekend. (to go)
2. He ________________________ to the teacher. (to talk)
3. I ________________________ to learn Korean. (to try)
4. They ________________________ here in 15 minutes. (to come)
5. The children ________________________ the new Harry Potter movie. (to watch)
6. My grandparents ________________________ tonight. (to leave)
7. I ________________________ my friends at the mall. (to meet)
8. The students ________________________ to the teacher. (to listen)
9. We ________________________ a great time! (to have)
10. My brother ________________________ a trip to Mexico. (to plan)

VERB TENSES| The present continuous tense 2 
Fill in the blanks with the correct form of each verb in brackets:
1. My sister ________________________ an email to her friend. (to write)
2. My friends ________________________ to New York City. (to fly)
3. I ________________________. (to sing)
4. We ________________________ a cake. (to bake)
5. My sister and her boyfriend ________________________ married in July. (to get)
6. My mother ________________________ the table. (to set)
7. Our neighbors ________________________ to another city. (to move)
8. I ________________________ on the phone. (to talk)
9. Peter ________________________ today. (to work)
10. You ________________________ breakfast. (to eat)


VERBS | Simple past (Regular verbs) 1
Fill in the blanks with the simple past form of each verb:
1. I __________ to tell him. ( = to want)
2. She __________ with the other girls. ( = to play)
3. My mother __________ to me about this. ( = to talk)
4. We __________ to France last summer. ( = to travel)
5. The bank __________ at 5:00 PM. ( = to close)
6. My cousin __________ the door for me. ( = to open)
7. We __________ at the airport two hours before our flight. ( = to arrive)
8. The lifeguard __________ the swimmer. ( = to rescue)
9. She __________ her homework. ( = to finish)
10. My brother __________ the advanced exercises. ( = to try)

VERBS | Simple past (Regular verbs) 2
Fill in the blanks with the simple past form of each verb:
1. The teacher __________ the students to leave early. ( = to allow)
2. Marina __________ a cake for her boyfriend. ( = to bake)
3. I __________ that movie! ( = to love)
4. We __________ how to conjugate irregular verbs. ( = to learn)
5. John __________ his high school sweetheart. ( = to marry)
6. My grandfather __________ to speak with a doctor. ( = to need)
7. I __________ at his joke. ( = to laugh)
8. George __________ learning Spanish. ( = to start )
9. Yoko __________ her lunch with her friend. ( = to share)
10. We __________ about different things. ( = to talk)

ENGLISH VERB TENSES: The simple present 1
Fill in each blank with the proper SIMPLE PRESENT form of the verb (in parentheses):
EX: I usually run in the morning. (to run)
1) We ____________________ basketball every Sunday. (to play)
2) Robert always ____________________ his homework. (to do)
3) Thomas never ____________________ hard. (to try)
4) Bill ____________________ movies with his girlfriend. (to watch)
5) Robert always _____________________ flowers for his wife. (to buy)
6) They ____________________ French. (to speak)
7) My sister _____________________ her friends. (to miss)
8) I ______________________ hungry. (to be)
9) John _______________________ a big house. (to have)
10) Fiona _______________________ her hair every day. (to wash)

ENGLISH VERB TENSES: The simple present (questions) 1
Form a question based on each sentence:
EX: John wants to eat --> Does John want to eat?
1) Robert is German. --> ____________________________?
2) She is happy. --> ____________________________?
3) Thomas plays tennis every Saturday. --> ____________________________?
4) Bill likes Monica. --> ____________________________?
5) You go to the beach every day. --> ____________________________?
6) Peter speaks French. --> ____________________________?
7) They love each other. --> ____________________________?
8) My cousins have two cats. --> ____________________________?
9) You are sick. --> ____________________________?
10) Steve lives in Boston. --> ____________________________?







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